President Makarios in a letter accuses members of the Junta and Greek CIA of financing and controlling the activities of EOKA B and plotting his overthrow. He demands the withdrawal of the Greek Officers in the Cyprus National Guard.
Military Coup in
Cyprus. Nikos Sampson named President. Turkish Military Forces placed on alert.
President Makarios speaks from a radio station in Paphos and denies Cyprus
Radio's announcement of his death.
In London Greek and Turkish Cypriots' protest together outside the Greek Embassy. President Makarios leaves Cyprus through the British Base at Akrotiri. A Turkish note is delivered to Britain.
President Makarios and Mr. Bulent Ecevit, Prime Minister of Turkey, arrive in London. The former is received as President of Cyprus by the British Government. Press reports speak of massive Turkish Army build-up.
to a high NATO official, members
of NATO at a Council meeting voiced broad support for the elected regime
of President Makarios and the territorial integrity of the island of
President Makarios flies to New York to address UN. The Security Council acknowledges him as President: Press reports state that the Turkish Delegation sent a letter to the Secretary General reasserting his legitimacy.
Mr. Sisco, U.S. Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs, arrives in London. He meets Mr. Callaghan and Mr. Ecevit, who later leaves for Ankara. Mr Kissinger flies to California. A U.S. State department spokesman refuses to deny reports that US policy is moving towards recognition of Nikos Sampson but states that the US has no position on the recognition of either side.
Makarios speaks to the Security Council alleging the Coup was organised by the
Greek Military Regime. U.S. Ambassador Scali says this is an issue still to be
determined, and warns against a power vacuum in Cyprus if Greek Officers are
permanently removed. The Security Council adjourns without a decision.
The Turkish fleet sails from Mersin. Mr. Sisco goes from London to Athens to Ankara.
Turkish Landing in Cyprus. Mr. Ecevit states: "It is clear our allies had exhausted every diplomatic possibility and that we would have to take action ourselves as one of the guarantor powers". "We are not bringing war but peace to Cyprus, to Greek as well as to Turkish Cypriots". "Turkish planes are dropping not bombs bus messages of goodwill to all people of Cyprus".
For the first
time during the present cirisis inter-communal fighting breaks out in many towns
and villages. At first about 6,000, ultimately about 8,000 Turkish Cypriot
refugees enter Akrotiri, others are made prisoner.
General mobilisation in Greece. The UN Security Council unanimously calls for a ceasefire, the withdrawal of all foreign military personnel and the opening of negotiations without delay.
Mr. Kissinger in Washington. Mr. Sisco returns to Athens. Negotiations for a ceasefire.
Turkey and Greece
accept ceasefire from 1400 GMT. After the fall of Kyrenia Mr. Ecevit is reported
as stating it will now remain "forever Turkish".
Collapse of Junta in Greece. Mr. Constantine Karamanlis is called on to return and become Prime Minister Nikos Sampson resigns. Mr. Glafkos Clerides is sworn in as President.
Mr. Constantine Karamanlis is sworn in as Prime Minister of Greece.
Conference opens. Turkish Press
reports continued build-up in Cyprus, confirmed by eye-witnesses.
Mr. Clerides at a
Press Conference states 1 Turkish Army continues to advance, has captured
Bellapais, and has doubled area under its control since the cease fire.
Mr. George Mavros
in an interview with the "Sunday Times" given prior to the Conference
states: "There is no question of Enosis . . . Our policy is to withdraw all
foreign troops from Cyprus". Greek Government requests special meetings of
the Security Council and Nato Council in view of ceasefire violations.
Press reports state
Turkish Commanders have ordered UN out of Kyrenia area. Continued reports of
landing of Turkish tanks and troops.
Declaration signed, re-affirming, ceasefire and establishing UN buffer zone.
Ceasefire lines to be identified by 4-man military commission. Second Geneva
Conference called for 8th August to consider constitutional issues.
UN confirms Turkish
Army has broken Geneva Ceasefire by shelling Karavas and Lapithos.
A Turkish advance
continues with daily fighting. Mr. Clerides alleges 20,000 have been driven from
their homes in the North. Press reports speak of 600 deported.
and Vasilia finally captured. Colonel Chakar, Turkish member of 4-man commission
says that the attack does not violate the ceasefire because it is "mopping
up small pockets of resistance".
Second round of Geneva talks begin.
ceasefire lines is signed in Nicosia.
At Geneva Turkey demands regional federation with more territory for Turkish Cypriots - about 30% - than the Turkish Army currently controls.
Mr. Ecevit says that Greece has 24 hours to accept the Turkish proposals at Geneva.
talks break down. Mr. Callaghan requests meeting of UN Security Council and
blames Turkey for not permitting 36 hour adjournment for consultations.
0500. Major attacks by Turkish Army on a broad front.
Department spokesman criticizes Turkey for invasion and says US will cut off
arms to both Greece and Turkey if they go to war. He denies US is favouring
Mr. Karamalis announces Greece will not go to war over Cyprus but is withdrawing from military side of NATO.
completes capture of Famagusta, and consolidates along "Attila Line".
Ankara Radio announces a ceasefire from 14.00 GMT.
Greek Cypriots have become refugees.
offers to mediate. Mr. Karamanlis refuses to go to Washington.
Turkish officials state US attitude has been fair.
further Turkish offensive, south of the "Attila Line", against
Athienoi and Pyroi, which are captured.
The US Ambassador,
Mr. Roger Davies, is shot dead in Nicosia, during a Greek Cypriot demonstration.
The USSR calls for International Conference on Cyprus - to be attended by members of the Security Council and the interested parties.
Dr. Kurt Waldheim in Cyprus. Greek Government rejects resumption of Geneva talks.
Mr. Rauf Denktash threatens to establish an independent Turkish Republic of Cyprus if problem is taken to the General Assembly.
Turkey effectively rejects Soviet proposals for International Conference.
Mr. Clerides rejects Mr. Denktash' statement.
Army raids Athna, bordering Dhekelia Base. UN releases figures showing a total
of 226,000 displaced persons out of a population of 620,000.
Assassination attempt against Dr.
V. Lyssarides, leader of EDEK, the pro-Makarios Social Democrats. The UN
Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution calling for relief measures for
refugees, and for negotiations.
Following repeated and serious atrocity allegations on both sides, including allegations of murder and rape of civilians, and the discovery by the Turks of mass graves, the Cyprus Government states it "challenges the Turkish side to allow an independent investigation by a commonly accepted committee of all crimes or acts of violence, atrocities, rapes and looting reported both in the areas controlled by the Turkish invasion forces and those controlled by the Government."
Turkish troops capture Galini in Morphou Bay area. Mr. Denktash says he is informed that Greece will now accept the division of Cyprus into Greek and Turkish zones. A Greek Government spokesman denies this.
Further Turkish advance in North-West of the island. Senator Thomas Eagleton, in speech to the US Senate argues that Foreign Assistance Act and Foreign Military Sales Act, as under these military aid can only be used for self defence or in accordance with the UN Charter - and any nation in violation is immediately ineligible for further assistance.
Mr. Clerides and Mr. Denktash meet
for first time since Geneva breakdown. A UN spokesman announces they agreed to
set up a scheme for the exchange of prisoners and to give lists of missing
persons - 3,189 Greek Cypriots are already listed.
British Press reports the Turkish
Cypriot administration has asked the British Government to send all Turkish
Cypriot refugees at Akrotiri to Turkey.
states Greek Cypriot property will be taken over for operation by official
concerns or new co-operatives. Non Cypriots and foreign companies must register
property with the Turkish Cypriot
administration, even if previously registered elsewhere. (Later it emerges there
was a relative decision of the "Autonomous" Cyprus Turkish
Administration dated 27th August.) The Cyprus Government declares its opposition
to the plan of transferring Turkish Cypriot refugees to Turkey.
between Mr. Clerides and Mr. Denktash with UN special envoy present.
Agreement on the release of several categories of prisoners and detainees.
Sick and wounded prisoners
Mr. Bulent Ecevit resigns as Prime
Minister of Turkey but continues provisionally in charge of administration.
Mavros, Greece's Foreign Minister, speaking to foreign correspondents, publicly
renounces Enosis and declares Greece will support any solution agreed between
the Turkish and Greek communities based on the island's independence,
sovereignty and integrity.
The UN High Commission for Refugees calls for urgent action over the 225,000 refugees to avoid a catastrophe.
Mr. Clerides and Mr. Denktash agree on the release of all remaining prisoners of war.
About 160 Greek Cypriots who choose to return to their homes in the Karpass peninsula of N.E. Cyprus are kept by Turkish Army under custody in Nicosia instead of being transferred by the International Red Cross to their homes.
US House of
Representatives votes 307-90 to cut off military aid to Turkey. unless there is
"substantial progress" towards agreement on the removal of all foreign
troops from Cyprus. The House attached this amendment, which follows
a Senate Resolution, to a Government stopgap spending bill.
speaking at the UN General Assembly,
condemns any idea of partition.
announced a joint Turkish-Turkish Cypriot tourism company with a capital of
$1.4m is to be formed to handle facilities captured in the Northern region of
Cyprus. An official in the Turkish Ministry of Tourism indicates the Company
will be called "Cyprus Turkish Tourism Enterprises" and the 50%
Turkish shares will be held by Turkey's Retired Civil Servants Fund, Tourism
Bank, Emek Construction Enterprises, Turkish Airlines and the Turkish Maritime
Bank. The Turkish Cypriot shares will be held by the Religious Fund, the
Community Fund, and ETI, an import-export concern. The Company's main aim is to
revitalize tourism in Northern Cyprus by Summer 1975.
Press reports state British and
Greek Cypriot firms intend to sue the British Government for failing to uphold
its guarantee under the 1960 treaty to maintain the "independence,
territorial integrity and security" of the Republic of Cyprus.
exchange of prisoners of war by Turks because of Greek Cypriot prisoners'
to return to Turkish held North of island. Reports of permanent Turkish
fortification line across North of Island.
Greek Cypriots demonstrate in Limassol for return of President Makarios to the
island. One participant shot dead. Mr. Kissinger meets Mr. Mavros in New York.
Mr. Demirel is
named by President Koroturk to try and form a new Government.
The US Senate,
while considering the stopgap spending bill, votes (57-20) to cut off US
Military Aid to Turkey at once.
meets Mr. Gunes in New York, for the second time in a week.
Agreement to recommence exchange of prisoners. UN spokesman says Greek Cypriot prisoners can return to their homes in the North. Greek Government recommends all Cypriots to unite behind Mr. Clerides as Acting President of Cyprus.
Makarios speaks at UN General Assembly,
rejecting geographical federation
of the island, which would in effect be partition, as a solution to the needs
for autonomy and security of the 18 per cent Turkish minority.
Senate votes 48-34 to amend the foreign
aid bill so as to cut off military aid
Makarios, after meeting Mr. Kissinger, states "Mr. Clerides enjoys my
confidence and my full support". Reports from Nicosia state Mr. Clerides
believes he is being undermined by the Archbishop's supporters and is
Yasal is appointed Tourism and information Minister of the "Turkish Cypriot
Federal Administration of the Republic of Cyprus".
Makarios makes a second statement of support for Mr. Clerides.
Senate Conference kills the Eagleton amendment to the stopgap spending bill by
6-1. The revised version permits the cutoff to end when the President can
certify Turkey is "making good-faith efforts" to reach a negotiated
settlement over Cyprus.
Acting-President Mr. Clerides,
announces he will carry on. Correspondents state that for first time since
taking office he publicly refers to
Archbishop Makarios as President of the Republic.
states the Turkish lira will become
legal currency alongside the Cyprus pound. The Turkish-Cypriot community would
maintain its own radio and T.V.
Mr. George Mavros in a radio address: "The problem of Cyprus is not a question between Greece and Turkey. It is an international matter and the survival of all the postwar organisations . . . depends on its settlement". He compared events in Cyprus to Ethiopia and Czechoslovakia during the 1930s.
Meetings between Mr. Clerides and
Mr. Denktash resume.
Turkish political leaders to form a national coalition. Cyprus Government
declares Turkish occuped ports of Kyrenia and Famagusta illegal points of entry
US House of
Representatives by a vote of 291 to 69 restores suspension of
military assistance to Turkey unless "substantial progress towards
agreement on removing Turkish troops from Cyprus" is made. President Ford
attacks this provision, sponsored by Rep. Benjamin Rosenthal.
The US Senate similarly votes for a
cut-m' off of military aid to
Turkey by 62-16. Senator Mansfield introduces a compromise that would delay the
aid-ban coming into effect for 60 days, until Dec. 15th.
Senator Mansfield's Compromise
passed by the Senate 40 to 35.
The House of Representatives votes
187 to 171 against Senator Mansfield's compromise.
vetoes "continuing resolution" i.e. the stopgap spending bill, in view
of the amendment to it, cutting off military aid to Turkey, declaring it would
"mean the indefinite postponement of meaningful negotiations... It would,
as well, imperil our relationship with our Turkish ally and weaken us in the
crucial Eastern Mediterranean. It directly jeopardizes the NATO alliance".
and Mr. Danktash agreed on a resumption of the exchange of prisoners, broken off
on 26th September.
The US Senate
Sub-Committee on Refugees releases a State Dept. memo titled: "Humanitarian
Relief on Cyprus" which refers to relief aid as a way to "improve
the political climate" for negotiations, demonstrate a "balanced
policy", and as an opportunity to strengthen Turkey's "international
image", and "bargaining position". State Department officials,
said the memo was not approved as policy. Press reports stated however that the
memo has been given by Mr. Sisco to Mr. William Crawford, who left for Cyprus as
new US Ambassador on August 29th, as part of his briefing material, and that he
used it with Embassy Staff.
The House of Representatives fails to override President Ford's veto. The vote was 223 to 135, or 16 short of the two - third's necessary to override. A new resolution is introduced permitting the President to delay the cut-off until 10th December - Representatives Rosenthal, John Brademas and Paul Sarbanes seek to strengthen resolution by a provision that the cut-off will commence earlier if US supplies are shipped to Cyprus meanwhile.
Both Houses approve the
strengthened form of the resolution, the House of Representatives by 199-144,
the Senate by 40-27. President Ford again vetoes it.
The House of
Representatives fails to override second veto by 161-83, two votes short of the
required two-thirds majority.
A compromise is reached between President Ford and Congress by which military aid to Turkey can continue till December 10th, provided Turkey observes the ceasefire, does not increase its forces in Cyprus and does not ship to Cyprus US-supplied implements of war. The House approves the new compromise by 101 to 33, and the Senate also accepts it.
signs the compromise bill "with serious reservations". A Cyprus
Government spokesman termed the compromise "constructive". Three US
made Turkish planes overfly Cyprus which the Cyprus Government declares a
violation of the ceasefire.
Exchange of prisoners resumed. Many Greek Cypriots and some Turkish Cypriots choose to return to their homes on the other side of the line.
Cyprus Government protests against Turkish overflights for fourth successive day.
Mr. Denktash in Ankara states "biregional federation is the only solution Cyprus has been left with now".
Meeting in London between Mr.
Callaghan and Mr. Denktash. Mr. Callaghan is reported to have said that the
question of the refugees at Akrotiri and elsewhere should be settled between Mr.
Clerides and Mr. Denktash.
prisoners completed but large numbers remain missing. 3308 Turkish Cypriots and
2479 Greek Cypriots were exchanged.
Debate on Cyprus in UN General Assembly commences: Mr. Spyros Kyprianou speaks on behalf of Cyprus Government saying there can be no bargaining until refugees return to their-homes.
Mr. V. Celik,
representative of Turkish Cypriot community in Cyprus, addresses the UN Special
Political Committee. He charges Archbishop Makarios had pursued the ultimate aim
of Enosis, in close co-operation with Athens, and demands a bi-regional federal
The Cyprus House of Representatives
imposes a 10 to 25 per cent levy on earnings of all salaried people to meet
emergency relief needs.
UN General Assembly resolution
passed by 117 to 0, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey all voting in favour.